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Parallel climate measurements

Long instrumental climate records are usually affected by non-climatic changes (inhomogeneities). The most direct way to study non-climatic biases relies on parallel measurements. This project will search, and gather historical parallel measurements. For more information on the rationale for such a database, please read this announcement.

We ask for your help in developing such a dataset. Currently the main task is to build an inventory of parallel measurements. If you have any information, please add it to the table below. For more information on how you can help, please see this page.

Editing this Wiki

This is a Wiki, thus anyone can help us make the inventory more accurate and more complete. With a double-click on any text or with the menu to the right you will get into the edit mode and can make changes with an easy WYSIWYG editor. To protect against spam, you have to solve a "puzzle" at the top of the screen. If your answer is wrong, your edit is lost. It is thus a good idea to make a local copy of any additional text.

You can also make a new page, for example, to describe a station, network or dataset in more detail. To do so first create a link in the table (in the column location). When you click on the new link, you will be asked whether you want to make a new page and a list of templates will be shown. In case of a new station (network), you can do so using the template stationTemplate (networkTemplate).

Inventory parallel measurements**

Country Location Comparison Variables Covariates*
Australia Adelaide Glaisher stand with Stevenson screen (60 years) Temp Unknown
Australia Broadmeadows, Melbourne, Victoria 10 types of temperature screens (large and small Stevenson and aspirated multiplate cones) Temp Wind speed and direction, pressure, rainfall, global irradiance
Austria Kremsmünster North wall with Stevenson Temp Unknown
Austria Various Campbell-Stockes with Haenni Sunshine Unknown
Austria Various Stevenson screen (tmax, tmin) and AWS Temp Unknown
Austria Hohe Warte, Vienna Hann and Freiland screen (1953 - 1982) Temp Unknown
Belgium Uccle cup anemometer and sonic anemometers Windspeed and direction Unknown
Canada Instrument field USRCH to Canadian equipment Unknown Unknown
Canada Unknown Conventional with AWS Unknown Unknown
Czech republic Doksany Czech-Slovak thermometer screen (open bottom) and the multiplate radiation shield Temp Wind speed, cloud cover, solar radiation, precipitation
France Paris Montsouris & Stevenson screen Temp Unknown
Germany Hohenpeissenberg North wall with standard screen (Stevenson?) Temp Unknown
Germany German climate reference network Stevenson screen (obs 3 per day) and AWS Tm, Tx, Tn, Tw, Ts, p, rr, rel. humidity, specific humidity, sun shine duration, freezing depth Precipitation, sun shine duration, ground temperature
Greece Greek network no. 1 Stevenson screen and AWS Tm, Tx, Tn, (p, rel. hum., wind)
Greece Karpathos Two Stevenson screens Tm, Tx, Tn, p, rr, wind
Greece Arta and Souda Two pairs with two different Stevenson screens, 4 to 5 km apart Tm, Tx, Tn, (p), rr, wind
Romania 15 stations Classical observations and AWS Tm, Tx, Tn, pressure, rel. hum. Unknown
Romania 17 stations Classical observations and AWS Tm, Tx, Tn Unknown
Samoa Stevenson screen with a tropical screen (Stevenson with thatched roof) Temp Unknown
Slovenia# Slovenian network 4 pairs of nearby climatological stations Temperature, humidity, pressure, cloudiness, precipitation sum, snow depth, wind, state of ground, visibility Temperature, humidity, pressure, cloudiness, precipitation sum, snow depth, wind, state of ground, visibility
Slovenia# Slovenian network 2 Manual readings and data logger measurements in the same Stevenson screen, 4 stations Temperature Temperature, humidity, pressure, cloudiness, precipitation sum, snow depth, wind, state of ground, visibility
South Africa Cape Town Window, French and Stevenson screen Unknown Unknown
Spain Murcia and La Coruna Montsouri, with Stevenson obs and Stevenson auto Temp Unknown
Spain Various Classical observations and AWS; nearby stations Tm, Tx, Tn, rr, wind, rel. hum., sunshine hours
Switzerland Zurich Multiple stations in a city (relocation) Temp Unknown
Switzerland Basel Wild and Stevenson screen Temp Wind speed, cloud cover, insolation (modelled), precipitation, snow cover (modelled)
Switzerland Various Transition to new AWS Various Various
The Netherlands De Bilt 10 modern screens; multiplate round screen and Stevenson screens Temp Precip, wind speed, global downward radiation, relative humidity (probably more)
The Netherlands Stavoren Wind at 2 nearby locations Wind speed and direction Unknown
United Kingdom Strathfield Turgiss (nowdays: Stratfield Turgis) Lawson stand and Stevenson screen Temp Unknown
United Kingdom Greenwich, London Glaisher stand with Stevenson screen (boarded bottom) Temp Unknown
United Kingdom Croydon Glaisher stand with Stevenson screen (old-style) Temp Unknown
United Kingdom London Glaisher stand with Stevenson screen Temp Unknown
United Kingdom Berkshire Stevenson screen with Davis VP2 AWS Temp, rainfall, wind None
United States of America Fort Collins, Colorado MMTS and obs. Temp Unknown
United States of America Oklahoma Mesonet Different heights (depths) and technologies Temp, wind, soil temp, rainfall, soil moisture Solar radiation, pressure, relative humidity
United States of America US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Temperature, precipitation Solar radiation, wind speed, (soil temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity) Free
United States of America Phoenix, Arizona Temperature (70 stations) Unknown Unknown
  • Covariates are other climatic elements that may explain the differences found between the parallel measurements. In case of temperature, this could be precipitation, insolation, cloud cover, snow cover. In case of precipitation this could be (wet bulb) temperature or wind speed. In case of wind speed this could be wind direction. Etc. ** If we make a repository out of this inventory, we will first restrict the dataset to the participants to be able to write joint publications on the dataset. It would be good to know the license at the end of this phase. # Dataset in our database.


Auchmann, R. and S. Brönnimann. A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-daily temperature series, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17119, doi:10.1029/2012JD018067, 2012.

Auer, I., Böhm, R. and Schöner, W. ALOCLIM-Austrian Long-term Climate 1767-2000. Multiple Instrumental Climate time series from Central Europe. Österreichische Beiträge zu Meteorologie und Geophysik, 25, 1-147. Publ.Nr. 397. Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Wien, 2001.

Böhm, R., P.D. Jones, J. Hiebl, D. Frank, M. Brunetti,· M. Maugeri. The early instrumental warm-bias: a solution for long central European temperature series 1760–2007. Climatic Change, 101, pp. 41–67, doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9649-4, 2010.

Boroneant, C., M. Baciu, A. Orzan. On the statistical parameters calculated for the essential climatological variables during 2-years of parallel observations with automatic and classical stations in Romania. 5th seminar on homogenization and data quality in the climatological databases, Budapest, May 29 - June 2, 2006.

Brunet, M., J. Asin, J. Sigró, M. Bañón, F. García, E. Aguilar, J.E. Palenzuela, T.C. Peterson, P.D. Jones. The minimisation of the "screen bias" from ancient Western Mediterranean air temperature records: an exploratory statistical analysis. Int. J. Climatol., 31, pp. 1879-1895, doi: 10.1002/joc.2192, 2011.

Burt, S. The Weather Observer’s Handbook. Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 978-1-107-02681-0, 456 p., 2012.

Cheval, S., M. Baciu, A. Dumitrescu, T. Breza, V. Pescaru. 5th seminar on homogenization and data quality in the climatological databases, Budapest, May 29 - June 2, 2006.

Chow, W.T.L., D. Brennan and A.J. Brazel. Urban heat island research in Phoenix, Arizona: Theoretical Contributions and Policy Applications.. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, April, pp. 517-530, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00011.1, 2012. (Corresponding author: Winston T.L. Chow, <wtchow #>)

Baciu, M., V. Copaciu, T. Breza, S. Cheval, I.V. Pescaru. Preliminary results obtained following the intercomparison of the meteorological parameters provided by automatic and classical stations in Romania. WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO-2005), Bucharest, Romania, 4-7 May, 2005.

Brandsma, T. and J.P. van der Meulen. Thermometer Screen Intercomparison in De Bilt (the Netherlands),Part II: Description and modeling of mean temperature differences and extremes. Int. J. Climatology, 28, pp. 389-400, 2008.

Dettwiller, J. 1978. Secular evolution of temperature in Paris. La Mhtiorologie, VI Ser., 13, pp. 95-130. (Original is in French. English translation available from National Meteorological Library, Bracknell, UK.) Cited in Parker (1994).

Diamond, H.J., T.R. Karl, M.A. Palecki, C.B. Baker, J.E. Bell, R.D. Leeper, D.R. Easterling, J.H. Lawrimore, T.P. Meyers, M.R. Helfert, G. Goodge, P.W. Thorne. U.S. Climate Reference Network after One Decade of Operations: Status and Assessment. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Early Online Release, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00170, 2012. See also USCRN homepage.

Dobesch, H. and H. Mohnl. Comparison of time series of sunshine duration measuered by the Campbell-Stokes Recorder and the Haenni Solar System: Instruments and Observing methods. Report No. 49, WMO/TD-No. 462. WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO 92), 1992.

Doesken, N.J. The National Weather Service MMTS (Maximum-Minimum Temperature System) - 20 years after. 15th Conference on Applied Climatology, 20—24 June, Savannah, Georgia, no. JP1.26, 2005.

Ellis, W. On the comparison of thermometrical observations made in a Stevenson screen with corresponding observations made on the revolving stand at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 17, pp. 240-249, 1891. As cited in Parker (1994).

Gaster. F. Report on experiments made at Strathfield Turgiss in 1869 with stands or screens of various patterns, devised and employed for the exposing of thermometers, in order to determine the temperature of the air. Appendix II to Quarterly Weather Report for 1879, Meteorological Office, London, pp. 13-39, 1882.

Gerbush, M.R., J. Carlin, D.A. Robinson, C. Speciale, P.J. Croft, Long-term comparison of temperatures observed from multiple sensors at the New Brunswick, NJ NWS Cooperative Weather Station, 20th Conference on Applied Climatology, 5-10 January, 2013, Austin, Texas.

Gill, D. On the effect of different kinds of thermometer screens, and of different exposures, in estimating the diurnal range of temperature at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 8, pp. 238-243, 1882. As cited in Parker (1994).

Gruber C., Auer I., Jurkovic A. HOMDAY - Auswahl eines Verfajrens zur Homogenisierung von täglichen Klimadaten als notwendige Voraussetzung zur Analyse von täglichen Klimazeitreihen in Hinblick auf "Climate Change". Projektbericht, 2008.

Hommel, K. Der Anschluss der alten Hohenpeissenberger Beobachtungsreihen an die Messungen bei der neuen Aufstellung auf Grund zweijährige Vergleichsablesung. Der DWD US Zone, 42, pp. 57-62, 1952.

Lacher Larissa., Thomas Herren and Andreas Matzarakis. 9 Deutsche Klimatagung, Freiburg, Germany, 2012.

Lin, X., R. A. Pielke Sr., K. G. Hubbard, K. C. Crawford, M. A. Shafer, and T. Matsui. An examination of 1997–2007 surface layer temperature trends at two heights in Oklahoma. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24705, doi: 10.1029/2007GL031652, 2007.

Margary, I. D. Glaisher stand versus stevenson screen. A comparison of forty years' observations of maximum and minimum temperature as recorded in both screens at Camden Square, London. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 50, pp. 209–226. doi: 10.1002/qj.49705021109, 1924.

Mawley, E. Shade temperature. Q. J . R. Meteorol. Soc., 23, pp. 69-87, 1897. As cited in Parker (1994).

McPherson, R. A., C. A. Fiebrich, K. C. Crawford, R. L. Elliott, J. R. Kilby, D. L. Grimsley, J. E. Martinez, J. B. Basara, B. G. Illston, D. A. Morris, K. A. Kloesel, S. J. Stadler, A. D. Melvin, A.J. Sutherland, and H. Shrivastava, 2007: Statewide Monitoring of the Mesoscale Environment: A Technical Update on the Oklahoma Mesonet. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 301-321.

Mozny, Martin; Trnka, Mirek; Stepanek, Petr; Zalud, Zdenek; Koznarova, Vera; Hajkova, Lenka; Bares, Daniel; Semeradova, Daniela. Long-term comparison of temperature measurements by the multi-plate shield and Czech-Slovak thermometer screen. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 21, no. 2 , pp. 125-133, 2012.

Nicholls, N., Tapp, R., Burrows, K. and Richards, D. Historical thermometer exposures in Australia. Int. J. Climatol., 16: 705–710. doi: <705::AID-JOC30>3.0.CO;2-S 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199606)16:6<705::AID-JOC30>3.0.CO;2-S, 1996.

Parker, D.E. Effects of changing exposure of thermometers at land stations. Int. J. Climatol., 14, pp. 1–31, 1994.

Sapsford, H.B. 1940. Exposure of thermometers in Samoa. N. Z. J. Sci.Technol., 22, 136B-143B.

Schöner, W., I. Auer, R. Böhm, S. Thaler. Qualitätskontrolle und statistische Eigenschaften ausgewählter Klimaparameter auf Tageswertbasis im Hinblick auf Extremwertanalysen. English: Endbericht StartClim.1. Quality control and statistical properities of selected climate elements at a daily scale with respect to extreme value analysis. Final report StartClim. 1. 54, pp, 2003.

Sotelino, L.G., N. De Coster, P. Beirinckx, P. Peeters. Intercomparison of cup anemometer and sonic anemometers on site at Uccle/Belgium. WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO-2012), Brussels, Belgium, 16-18 October 2012. Contact: < Luis.Gonzalez # >.

Suter, S., T. Konzelmann, C. Mühlhäuser, M. Begert, A. Heimo. SWISSMETNET – The new automatic meteorological network of Switzerland: transition from old to new network, data management and first results. Report MeteoSwiss, 2006. Contact: < Stephan.Suter # >

Van der Meulen, J.P. and T. Brandsma. Thermometer screen intercomparison in De Bilt (The Netherlands), Part I: Understanding the weather-dependent temperature differences). Int. J. Climatol., 28, pp. 371-387, doi: 10.1002/joc.1531, 2008.

Verkaik, J.W. Parallelmeting van wind op Wijdenes-Berkhou Stavoren haven-Stavoren AWS. KNMI report, 12 Sept. 2001.

Warne, J. A preliminary investigation of temperature screen design and their impacts on temperature measurements. Instrument test report number 649. Physics laboratory OEB, 9 June 1998.

Further reference not yet mentioned in table

Lacombe M., D. Bousri, M. Leroy, M. Mezred 2011: WMO field intercomparison of thermometer screens/shields and humidity measuring instruments. IOM 106, WMO/TD-No. 1579

Goodison B.E., P.Y.T. Louie, D. Yang 1998: WMO solid precipitation measurement intercomparison. Final report. WMO/TD - No. 872.

Groisman P. Ya., Eugene L. Peck, Robert G. Quayle, 1999: Intercomparison of Recording and Standard Nonrecording U.S. Gauges. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology., 16, -602-609.

Sevruk B., M. Ondrás, B. Chvíla 2009: The WMO precipitation measurement intercomparisons. Atmospheric Research 92 (2009) 376-380. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.01.016

van der Meulen J.P. 1992: The WMO Automatic Digital Barometer Intercomparison.IOM REPORT No. 46, WMO/TD No. 474.

Nash J., R. Smout, T. Oakley, B. Pathack, S. Kurnosenko 2006: WMO Intercomparison of radiosonde systems. Instruments and observing methods report No. 83, WMO/TD-No. 1303.

Barnett A., D.B. Hatton and D.W. Jones 1998: Recent Changes in Thermometer Screen Designs and their Impact. IOM 66 WMO/TD 871.

Gregoire P. and G. Oualid 1997: WMO Wind Instrument Intercomparison. IOM 62 WMO/TD 859

More comparisons can be found at the WMO.